This yr’s report on the O’Reilly studying platform takes an in depth have a look at how our clients used the platform. Our purpose is to seek out out what they’re all in favour of now and the way that modified from 2021—and to make some predictions about what 2023 will carry.

Loads has occurred up to now yr. In 2021, we noticed that GPT-3 may write tales and even assist individuals write software program; in 2022, ChatGPT confirmed that you may have conversations with an AI. Now builders are utilizing AI to put in writing software program. Late in 2021, Mark Zuckerberg began speaking about “the metaverse,” and pretty quickly, everybody was speaking about it. However the dialog cooled nearly as shortly because it began. Again then, cryptocurrency costs had been approaching a excessive, and NFTs had been “a factor”…then they crashed.

Be taught sooner. Dig deeper. See farther.

What’s actual, and what isn’t? Our information exhibits us what O’Reilly’s 2.8 million customers are literally engaged on and what they’re studying day-to-day. That’s a greater measure of know-how tendencies than something that occurs among the many Twitterati. The solutions normally aren’t present in large spectacular adjustments; they’re present in smaller shifts that replicate how persons are turning the large concepts into real-world merchandise. The alerts are sometimes complicated: for instance, curiosity in content material in regards to the “large three” cloud suppliers is barely down, whereas curiosity in content material about cloud migration is considerably up. What does that imply? Firms are nonetheless “shifting into the cloud”—that development hasn’t modified—however as some transfer ahead, others are pulling again (“repatriation”) or suspending initiatives. It’s gratifying once we see an essential matter come alive: zero belief, which displays an essential rethinking of how safety works, confirmed great development. However different know-how subjects (together with some favorites) are hitting plateaus and even declining.

Whereas we don’t focus on the financial system as such, it’s at all times within the background. Whether or not or not we’re really in a recession, many in our trade understand us to be so, and that notion may be self-fulfilling. Firms that went on a hiring spree over the previous few years at the moment are realizing that they made a mistake—and that features each giants that do layoffs within the tens of hundreds and startups that thought they’d entry to an countless stream of VC money. In flip, that actuality influences the actions people take to safeguard their jobs or improve their worth ought to they should discover a new one.


This report is predicated on our inside “models seen” metric, which is a single metric throughout all of the media sorts included in our platform: ebooks, after all, but additionally movies and dwell coaching programs. We use models seen as a result of it measures what individuals really do on our platform. Nevertheless it’s essential to acknowledge the metric’s shortcomings; as George Field (nearly)1 stated, “All metrics are unsuitable, however some are helpful.” Models seen tends to low cost the utilization of recent subjects: if a subject is new, there isn’t a lot content material, and customers can’t view content material that doesn’t exist. As a counter to our deal with models seen, we’ll take a quick have a look at searches, which aren’t constrained by the supply of content material. For the needs of this report, models seen is at all times normalized to 1, the place 1 is assigned to the best variety of models in any group of subjects.

It’s additionally essential to keep in mind that these “models” are “seen” by our customers. Whether or not they entry the platform via particular person or company accounts, O’Reilly members are sometimes utilizing the platform for work. Regardless of speak of “web time,” our trade doesn’t change radically from each day, month to month, and even yr to yr. We don’t wish to low cost or undervalue those that are selecting up new concepts and expertise—that’s an especially essential use of the platform. But when an organization’s IT division had been engaged on its ecommerce web site in 2021, they had been nonetheless engaged on that web site in 2022, they received’t cease engaged on it in 2023, and so they’ll be engaged on it in 2024. They could be including AI-driven options or shifting it to the cloud and orchestrating it with Kubernetes, however they’re not more likely to drop React (and even PHP) to maneuver to the most recent cool framework.

Nevertheless, when the most recent cool factor demonstrates just a few years of stable development, it may possibly simply grow to be one of many well-established applied sciences. That’s taking place now with Rust. Rust isn’t going to take over from Java and Python tomorrow, not to mention in 2024 or 2025, however that’s a motion that’s actual. Lastly, it’s clever to be skeptical about “noise.” Adjustments of 1 or two share factors usually imply little. However when a mature know-how that’s main its class stops rising, it’s honest to wonder if it’s hit a plateau and is en path to changing into a legacy know-how.

The Greatest Image

We will get a high-level view of platform utilization by taking a look at utilization for our top-level subjects. Content material about software program improvement was probably the most broadly used (31% of all utilization in 2022), which incorporates software program structure and programming languages. Software program improvement is adopted by IT operations (18%), which incorporates cloud, and by information (17%), which incorporates machine studying and synthetic intelligence. Enterprise (13%), safety (8%), and net and cell (6%) come subsequent. That’s a reasonably good image of our core viewers’s pursuits: solidly technical, centered on software program somewhat than {hardware}, however with a major stake in enterprise subjects.

Whole platform utilization grew by 14.1% yr over yr, greater than doubling the 6.2% acquire we noticed from 2020 to 2021. The subjects that noticed the best development had been enterprise (30%), design (23%), information (20%), safety (20%), and {hardware} (19%)—all within the neighborhood of 20% development. Software program improvement grew by 12%, which sounds disappointing, though in any research like this, the biggest classes have a tendency to point out the least change. Utilization of sources about IT operations solely elevated by 6.9%. That’s a shock, significantly because the operations world continues to be coming to phrases with cloud computing.

O’Reilly studying platform utilization by matter yr over yr

Whereas this report focuses on content material utilization, a fast have a look at search information provides a really feel for the most well-liked subjects, along with the quickest rising (and quickest declining) classes. Python, Kubernetes, and Java had been the most well-liked search phrases. Searches for Python confirmed a 29% year-over-year acquire, whereas searches for Java and Kubernetes are nearly unchanged: Java gained 3% and Kubernetes declined 4%. Nevertheless it’s additionally essential to notice what searches don’t present: once we have a look at programming languages, we’ll see that content material about Java is extra closely used than content material about Python (though Python is rising sooner).

Equally, the precise use of content material about Kubernetes confirmed a slight year-over-year acquire (4.4%), regardless of the decline within the variety of searches. And regardless of being the second-most-popular search time period, models seen for Kubernetes had been solely 41% of these for Java and 47% of these for Python. This distinction between search information and utilization information might imply that builders “dwell” of their programming languages, not of their container instruments. They should learn about Kubernetes and often have to ask particular questions—and people wants generate numerous searches. However they’re working with Java or Python always, and that generates extra models seen.

The Go programming language is one other attention-grabbing case. “Go” and “Golang” are distinct search strings, however they’re clearly the identical matter. Whenever you add searches for Go and Golang, the Go language strikes from fifteenth and sixteenth place as much as fifth, simply behind machine studying. Nevertheless, change in use of the search time period was comparatively small: a 1% decline for Go, a 8% improve for Golang. Go as a subject class, we see one thing completely different: utilization of content material about Go is considerably behind the leaders, Java and Python, however nonetheless the third highest on our record, and with a 20% acquire from 2021 to 2022.

searches is worth it, but it surely’s essential to appreciate that search information and utilization information usually inform completely different tales.

Prime searches on the O’Reilly studying platform yr over yr

Searches may also give a fast image of which subjects are rising. The highest three year-over-year beneficial properties had been for the CompTIA Linux+ certification, the CompTIA A+ certification, and transformers (the AI mannequin that’s led to great progress in pure language processing). Nevertheless, none of those are what we’d name “prime tier” search phrases: they’d ranks starting from 186 to 405. (That stated, understand that the variety of distinctive search phrases we see is properly over 1,000,000. It’s rather a lot simpler for a search time period with just a few thousand queries to develop than it’s for a search time period with 100,000 queries.)

The sharpest declines in search frequency had been for cryptocurrency, Bitcoin, Ethereum, and Java 11. There are not any actual surprises right here. This has been a troublesome yr for cryptocurrency, with a number of scandals and crashes. As of late 2021, Java 11 was now not the present long-term assist (LTS) launch of Java; that’s moved on to Java 17.

What Our Customers Are Doing (in Element)

That’s a high-level image. However the place are our customers really spending their time? To know that, we’ll have to take a extra detailed have a look at our matter hierarchy—not simply on the subjects on the prime degree however at these within the inside (and innermost) layers.

Software program Growth

The largest change we’ve seen is the expansion in curiosity in coding practices; 35% year-over-year development can’t be ignored, and signifies that software program builders are extremely motivated to enhance their apply of programming. Coding practices is a broad matter that encompasses rather a lot—software program upkeep, test-driven improvement, sustaining legacy software program, and pair programming are all subcategories. Two smaller classes which are carefully associated to coding practices additionally confirmed substantial will increase: utilization of content material about Git (a distributed model management system and supply code repository) was up 21%, and QA and testing was up 78%. Practices like using code repositories and steady testing are nonetheless spreading to each new builders and older IT departments. These practices are hardly ever taught in pc science packages, and plenty of firms are simply starting to place them to make use of. Builders, each new and skilled, are studying them on the job.

Going by models seen, design patterns is the second-largest class, with a year-over-year improve of 13%. Object-oriented programming confirmed a wholesome 24% improve. The 2 are carefully associated, after all; whereas the idea of design patterns is relevant to any programming paradigm, object-oriented programming (significantly Java, C#, and C++) is the place they’ve taken maintain.

It’s price taking a better have a look at design patterns. Design patterns are options to frequent issues—they assist programmers work with out “reinventing wheels.” Above all, design patterns are a means of sharing knowledge. They’ve been abused up to now by programmers who thought software program was “good” if it used “design patterns,” and jammed as many into their code as attainable, whether or not or not it was applicable. Fortunately, we’ve gotten past that now.

What about practical programming? The “object versus practical” debates of some years in the past are over for probably the most half. The most important concepts behind practical programming may be carried out in any language, and practical programming options have been added to Java, C#, C++, and most different main programming languages. We’re now in an age of “multiparadigm” programming. It feels unusual to conclude that object-oriented programming has established itself, as a result of in lots of ways in which was by no means doubtful; it has lengthy been the paradigm of selection for constructing massive software program programs. As our programs are rising ever bigger, object-oriented programming’s significance appears safe.

Management and administration additionally confirmed very sturdy development (38%). Software program builders know that product improvement isn’t nearly code; it depends closely on communication, collaboration, and demanding considering. Additionally they notice that administration or group management might be the following step of their profession.

Lastly, we’d be remiss to not point out quantum computing. It’s the smallest matter class on this group however confirmed a 24% year-over-year acquire. The primary quantum computer systems at the moment are obtainable via cloud suppliers like IBM and Amazon Net Providers (AWS). Whereas these computer systems aren’t but highly effective sufficient to do any actual work, they make it attainable to get a head begin on quantum programming. No person is aware of when quantum computer systems shall be substantial sufficient to unravel real-world issues: possibly two years, possibly 20. However programmers are clearly all in favour of getting began.

12 months-over-year development for software program improvement subjects

Software program structure

Software program structure is a really broad class that encompasses all the things from design patterns (which we additionally noticed below software program improvement) to comparatively fashionable subjects like serverless and event-driven structure. The biggest matter on this group was, unsurprisingly, software program structure itself: a class that features books on the basics of software program structure, programs considering, communication expertise, and way more—nearly something to do with the design, implementation, and administration of software program. Not solely was this a big class, but it surely additionally grew considerably: 26% from 2021 to 2022. Software program architect has clearly grow to be an essential position, the following step for programming employees who wish to degree up their expertise.

For a number of years, microservices has been one of the standard subjects in software program structure, and this yr is not any exception. It was the second-largest matter and confirmed 3.6% development over 2021. Area-driven design (DDD) was the third-most-commonly-used matter, though smaller; it additionally confirmed development (19%). Though DDD has been round for a very long time, it got here into prominence with the rise of microservices as a means to consider partitioning an software into impartial providers.

Is the comparatively low development of microservices an indication of change? Have microservices reached a peak? We don’t assume so, but it surely’s essential to know the complicated relationship between microservices and monolithic architectures. Monoliths inevitably grow to be extra complicated over time, as bug fixes, new enterprise necessities, the necessity to scale, and different points should be addressed. Decomposing a posh monolith into a posh set of microservices is a difficult activity and positively one that may’t be underestimated: builders are buying and selling one sort of complexity for an additional within the hope of attaining elevated flexibility and scalability long-term. Microservices are now not a “cool new thought,” and builders have acknowledged that they’re not the answer to each downside. Nevertheless, they are a very good match for cloud deployments, and so they go away an organization well-positioned to supply its providers through APIs and grow to be an “as a service” firm. Microservices are unlikely to say no, although they could have reached a plateau. They’ve grow to be a part of the IT panorama. However firms have to digest the complexity trade-off.

Net APIs, which firms use to supply providers to distant consumer software program through the online’s HTTP protocol, confirmed a really wholesome improve (76%). This improve exhibits that we’re shifting much more strongly to an “API financial system,” the place probably the most profitable firms are constructed not round merchandise however round providers accessed via net APIs. That, in any case, is the idea for all “software program as a service” firms; it’s the idea on which all of the cloud suppliers are constructed; it’s what ties Amazon’s enterprise empire collectively. RESTful APIs noticed a smaller improve (6%); the momentum has clearly moved from the simplicity of REST to extra complicated APIs that use JSON, GraphQL, and different applied sciences to maneuver data.

The 29% improve within the utilization of content material about distributed programs is essential. A number of elements drive the rise in distributed programs: the transfer to microservices, the necessity to serve astronomical numbers of on-line purchasers, the top of Moore’s legislation, and extra. The time when a profitable software may run on a single mainframe—and even on a small cluster of servers in a rack—is lengthy gone. Fashionable functions run throughout a whole lot or hundreds of computer systems, digital machines, and cloud situations, all related by high-speed networks and information buses. That features software program operating on single laptops geared up with multicore CPUs and GPUs. Distributed programs require designing software program that may run successfully in these environments: software program that’s dependable, that stays up even when some servers or networks go down, and the place there are as few efficiency bottlenecks as attainable. Whereas this class continues to be comparatively small, its development exhibits that software program builders have realized that each one programs are distributed programs; there is no such thing as a such factor as an software that runs on a single pc.

12 months-over-year development for software program structure and design subjects

What about serverless? Serverless appears like a wonderful know-how for implementing microservices, but it surely’s been giving us blended alerts for a number of years now. Some years it’s up barely; some years it’s down barely. This yr, it’s down 14%, and whereas that’s not a collapse, we’ve got to see that drop as vital. Like microservices, serverless is now not a “cool new factor” in software program structure, however the lower in utilization raises questions: Are software program builders nervous in regards to the diploma of management serverless places within the palms of cloud suppliers, spinning up and shutting down situations as wanted? That might be a giant problem. Cloud clients wish to get their accounts payable down, cloud suppliers wish to get their accounts receivable up, and if the supplier tweaks just a few parameters that the shopper by no means sees, that steadiness may change rather a lot. Or has serverless simply plunged into the “trough of disillusionment” from which it’s going to ultimately emerge into the “aircraft of productiveness”? Or possibly it’s simply an thought whose time got here and went? Regardless of the cause, serverless has by no means established itself convincingly. Subsequent yr might give us a greater thought…or simply extra ambiguity.

Programming languages

The tales we are able to inform about programming languages are little modified from final yr. Java is the chief (with 1.7% year-over-year development), adopted by Python (3.4% development). However as we glance down the chart, we see some attention-grabbing challengers to the established order. Go’s utilization is simply 20% of Java’s, but it surely’s seen 20% development. That’s substantial. C++ is hardly a brand new language—and we sometimes anticipate older languages to be extra secure—but it surely had 19% year-over-year development. And Rust, with utilization that’s solely 9% of Java, had 22% development from 2021 to 2022. These numbers don’t foreshadow a revolution—as we stated on the outset, only a few firms are going to take infrastructure written in Java and rewrite it in Go or Rust simply to allow them to be development compliant. As everyone knows, numerous infrastructure is written in COBOL, and that isn’t going wherever. However each Rust and Go have established themselves in key areas of infrastructure: Docker and Kubernetes are each written in Go, and Rust is establishing itself within the safety neighborhood (and presumably additionally the info and AI communities). Go and Rust are already pushing older languages like C++ and Java to evolve. With just a few extra years of 20% development, Go and Rust shall be difficult Java and Python instantly, in the event that they aren’t difficult them already for greenfield initiatives.

JavaScript is an anomaly on our charts: whole utilization is nineteen% of Java’s, with a 4.6% year-over-year decline. JavaScript exhibits up at, or close to, the highest on most programming language surveys, corresponding to RedMonk’s rankings (normally in a digital tie with Java and Python). Nevertheless, the TIOBE Index exhibits extra space between Python (first place), Java (fourth), and JavaScript (seventh)—extra according to our observations of platform utilization. We attribute JavaScript’s decline partly to the elevated affect of TypeScript, a statically typed variant of JavaScript that compiles to JavaScript (12% year-over-year improve). One factor we’ve observed over the previous few years: whereas programmers had an extended dalliance with duck typing and dynamic languages, as functions (and groups) grew bigger, builders realized the worth of sturdy, statically typed languages (TypeScript definitely, but additionally Go and Rust, although these are much less essential for net improvement). This shift could also be cyclical; a decade from now, we may even see a revival of curiosity in dynamic languages. One other issue is using frameworks like React, Angular, and Node.js, that are undoubtedly JavaScript however have their very own subjects in our hierarchy. Nevertheless, if you add all 4 collectively, you continue to see a 2% decline for JavaScript, with out accounting for the shift from JavaScript to TypeScript. Regardless of the cause, proper now, the pendulum appears to be swinging away from JavaScript. (For extra on frameworks, see the dialogue of net improvement.)

The opposite two languages that noticed a drop in utilization are C# (6.3%) and Scala (16%). Is that this simply noise, or is it a extra substantial decline? The change appears too massive to be a random fluctuation. Scala has at all times been a language for backend programming, as has C# (although to a lesser extent). Whereas neither language is especially outdated, it appears their shine has worn off. They’re each competing poorly with Go and Rust for brand spanking new customers. Scala can be competing poorly with the newer variations of Java, which now have lots of the practical options that originally drove curiosity in Scala.

12 months-over-year development for programming languages


Laptop safety has been within the information often over the previous few years. That unwelcome publicity has each revealed cracks within the safety posture of many firms and obscured some essential adjustments within the area. The cracks are all too apparent: most organizations do a foul job of the fundamentals. Based on one report, 91% of all assaults begin with a phishing e-mail that tips a consumer into giving up their login credentials. Phishes have gotten extra frequent and more durable to detect. Primary safety hygiene is as essential as ever, but it surely’s getting harder. And cloud computing generates its personal issues. Firms can now not defend all of their IT programs behind a firewall; lots of the servers are operating in an information middle someplace, and IT employees has no thought the place they’re or even when they exist as bodily entities.

Given this shift, it’s not shocking that zero belief, an essential new paradigm for designing safety into distributed programs, grew 146% between 2021 and 2022. Zero belief abandons the idea that programs may be protected on some sort of safe community; all makes an attempt to entry any system, whether or not by an individual or software program, should current correct credentials. Hardening programs, whereas it acquired the least utilization, grew 91% yr over yr. Different subjects with vital development had been safe coding (40%), superior persistent threats (55%), and software safety (46%). All of those subjects are about constructing functions that may face up to assaults, no matter the place they run.

Governance (year-over-year improve of 72%) is a really broad matter that features nearly each facet of compliance and danger administration. Points like safety hygiene more and more fall below “governance,” as firms attempt to adjust to the necessities of insurers and regulators, along with making their operations safer. As a result of nearly all assaults begin with a phish or another sort of social engineering, simply telling workers to not give their passwords away received’t assist. Firms are more and more utilizing coaching packages, password managers, multifactor authentication, and different approaches to sustaining fundamental hygiene.

12 months-over-year development for safety subjects

Community safety, which was probably the most closely used safety matter in 2022, grew by a wholesome 32%. What drove this improve? Not using content material about firewalls, which solely grew 7%. Whereas firewalls are nonetheless helpful for shielding the IT infrastructure in a bodily workplace, they’re of restricted assist when a considerable a part of any group’s infrastructure is within the cloud. What occurs when an worker brings their laptop computer into the workplace from residence or takes it to a espresso store the place it’s extra weak to assault? How do you safe WiFi networks for individuals working from residence in addition to within the workplace? The broader downside of community safety has solely grow to be harder, and these issues can’t be solved by company firewalls.

Use of content material about penetration testing and moral hacking really decreased by 14%, though it was the second-most-heavily-used safety matter in our taxonomy (and probably the most closely utilized in 2021).

Safety certifications

Safety professionals love their certifications. Our platform information exhibits that a very powerful certifications had been CISSP (Licensed Data Methods Safety Skilled) and CompTIA Safety+. CISSP has lengthy been the most well-liked safety certification. It’s a really complete certification oriented towards senior safety specialists: candidates will need to have a minimum of 5 years’ expertise within the area to take the examination. Utilization of CISSP-related content material dropped 0.23% yr over yr—in different phrases, it was basically flat. A change this small is sort of definitely noise, however the lack of change might point out that CISSP has saturated its market.

In comparison with CISSP, the CompTIA Safety+ certification is geared toward entry- or mid-level safety practitioners; it’s a very good complement to the opposite CompTIA certifications, corresponding to Community+. Proper now, the demand for safety exceeds the provision, and that’s drawing new individuals into the sphere. This matches with the rise in using content material to organize for the CompTIA Safety+ examination, which grew 16% up to now yr. The CompTIA CSA+ examination (lately renamed the CYSA+) is a extra superior certification aimed particularly at safety analysts; it confirmed 37% development.

12 months-over-year development for safety certifications

Use of content material associated to the Licensed Moral Hacker certification dropped 5.9%. The explanations for this decline aren’t clear, on condition that demand for penetration testing (one focus of moral hacking) is excessive. Nevertheless, there are lots of certifications particularly for penetration testers. It’s additionally price noting that penetration testing is often a service offered by exterior consultants. Most firms don’t have the funds to rent full-time penetration testers, and that will make the CEH certification much less enticing to individuals planning their careers.

CBK isn’t an examination; it’s the framework of fabric round which the Worldwide Data System Safety Certification Consortium, extra generally often called (ISC)², builds its exams. With a 31% year-over-year improve for CBK content material, it’s one other clear signal that curiosity in safety as a occupation is rising. And despite the fact that (ISC)²’s marquee certification, CISSP, has possible reached saturation, different (ISC)² certifications present clear development: CCSP (Licensed Cloud Safety Skilled) grew 52%, and SSCP (Methods Safety Licensed Practitioner) grew 67%. Though these certifications aren’t as standard, their development is a vital development.


Information is one other very broad class, encompassing all the things from conventional enterprise analytics to synthetic intelligence. Information engineering was the dominant matter by far, rising 35% yr over yr. Information engineering offers with the issue of storing information at scale and delivering that information to functions. It consists of shifting information to the cloud, constructing pipelines for buying information and getting information to software software program (usually in close to actual time), resolving the problems which are brought on by information siloed in several organizations, and extra.

Apache Spark, a platform for large-scale information processing, was probably the most broadly used software, despite the fact that using content material about Spark declined barely up to now yr (2.7%). Hadoop, which might have led this class a decade in the past, continues to be current, although utilization of content material about Hadoop dropped 8.3%; Hadoop has grow to be a legacy information platform.

Microsoft Energy BI has established itself because the main enterprise analytics platform; content material about Energy BI was probably the most closely used, and achieved 31% year-over-year development. NoSQL databases was second, with 7.6% development—however understand that NoSQL was a motion that spawned numerous databases, with many alternative properties and designs. Our information exhibits that NoSQL definitely isn’t useless, regardless of some claims on the contrary; it has clearly established itself. Nevertheless, the 4 prime relational databases, if added collectively right into a single “relational database” matter, can be probably the most closely used matter by a big margin. Oracle grew 18.2% yr over yr; Microsoft SQL Server grew 9.4%; MySQL grew 4.7%; and PostgreSQL grew 19%.

Use of content material about R, the broadly used statistics platform, grew 15% from 2021. Equally, utilization of content material about Pandas, probably the most broadly used Python library for working with R-like information frames, grew 20%. It’s attention-grabbing that Pandas and R had roughly the identical utilization. Python and R have been competing (in a pleasant means) for the info science marketplace for practically 20 years. Based mostly on our utilization information, proper now it appears like a tie. R has barely extra market share, however Pandas has higher development. Each are staples in tutorial analysis: R is extra of a “statistician’s workbench” with a complete set of statistical instruments, whereas Python and Pandas are constructed for programmers. The distinction has extra to do with customers’ tastes than substance although: R is a completely succesful programming language, and Python has wonderful statistical and array-processing libraries.

Utilization for content material about information lakes and about information warehouses was additionally nearly equal, however information lakes utilization had a lot larger year-over-year development (50% versus 3.9%). Information lakes are a method for storing a corporation’s information in an unstructured repository; they got here into prominence just a few years in the past as a substitute for information warehouses. It could be helpful to check information lakes with information lakehouses and information meshes; these phrases aren’t in our taxonomy but.

12 months-over-year development for information evaluation and database subjects

Synthetic intelligence

At the start of 2022, who would have thought that we might be asking an AI-driven chat service to clarify supply code (even when it often makes up info)? Or that we’d have AI programs that allow nonartists to create works which are on a par with skilled designers (even when they’ll’t match Degas and Renoir)? But right here we’re, and we don’t have ChatGPT or generative AI in our taxonomy. The one factor that we are able to say is that 2023 will nearly definitely take AI even additional. How a lot additional no person is aware of.

For the previous two years, pure language processing (NLP) has been on the forefront of AI analysis, with the discharge of Open AI’s standard instruments GPT-3 and ChatGPT together with related initiatives from Google, Meta, and others that haven’t been launched. NLP has many industrial functions, starting from automated chat servers to code technology (e.g., GitHub Copilot) to writing instruments. It’s not shocking that NLP content material was probably the most seen and noticed vital year-over-year development (42%). All of this progress is predicated on deep studying, which was the second-most-heavily-used matter, with 23% development. Curiosity in reinforcement studying appears to be off (14% decline), although that will flip round as researchers attempt to develop AI programs which are extra correct and that may’t be tricked into hate speech. Reinforcement studying with human suggestions (RLHF) is one new approach which may result in better-behaved language fashions.

There was additionally comparatively little curiosity in content material about chatbots (a 5.8% year-over-year decline). This reversal appears counterintuitive, but it surely is smart on reflection. The discharge of GPT-3 was a watershed occasion, an “all the things you’ve performed to this point is out-of-date” second. We’re enthusiastic about what is going to occur in 2023, although the outcomes will rely rather a lot on how ChatGPT and its family are commercialized, as ChatGPT turns into a fee-based service, and each Microsoft and Google take steps in direction of chat-based search.

12 months-over-year development for synthetic intelligence subjects

Our studying platform provides some perception into the instruments builders and researchers are utilizing to work with AI. Based mostly on models seen, scikit-learn was the most well-liked library. It’s a comparatively outdated software, but it surely’s nonetheless actively maintained and clearly appreciated by the neighborhood: utilization elevated 4.7% over the yr. Whereas utilization of content material about PyTorch and TensorFlow is roughly equal (PyTorch is barely forward), it’s clear that PyTorch now has momentum. PyTorch elevated 20%, whereas TensorFlow decreased 4.8%. Keras, a frontend library that makes use of TensorFlow, dropped 40%.

It’s disappointing to see so little utilization of content material on MLOps this yr, together with a slight drop (4.0%) from 2021 to 2022. One of many greatest issues dealing with machine studying and synthetic intelligence is deploying functions into manufacturing after which sustaining them. ML and AI functions should be built-in into the deployment processes used for different IT functions. That is the enterprise of MLOps, which presents a set of issues which are solely starting to be solved, together with versioning for giant units of coaching information and automatic testing to find out when a mannequin has grow to be stale and desires retraining. Maybe it’s nonetheless too early, however these issues should be addressed if ML and AI are to achieve the enterprise.

No-code and low-code instruments for AI don’t seem in our taxonomy, sadly. Our report AI Adoption within the Enterprise 2022 argues that AutoML in its numerous incarnations is regularly gaining traction. It is a development price watching. Whereas there’s little or no coaching obtainable on Google AutoML, Amazon AutoML, IBM AutoAI, Amazon SageMaker, and different low-code instruments, they’ll nearly definitely be an essential pressure multiplier for skilled AI builders.

Infrastructure and Operations

Containers, Linux, and Kubernetes are the highest subjects inside infrastructure and operations. Containers sits on the prime of the record (with 2.5% year-over-year development), with Docker, the most well-liked container, in fifth place (with a 4.4% decline). Linux, the second most used matter, grew 4.4% yr over yr. There’s no shock right here; as we’ve been saying for a while, Linux is “desk stakes” for operations. Kubernetes is third, with 4.4% development.

The containers matter is extraordinarily broad: it consists of numerous content material that’s primarily about Docker but additionally content material about containers typically, alternate options to Docker (most notably Podman), container deployment, and plenty of different subtopics. It’s clear that containers have modified the way in which we deploy software program, significantly within the cloud. It’s additionally clear that containers are right here to remain. Docker’s small drop is price noting however isn’t a harbinger of change. Kubernetes deprecated direct Docker assist on the finish of 2020 in favor of the Container Runtime Interface (CRI). That change eradicated a direct tie between Kubernetes and Docker however doesn’t imply that containers constructed by Docker received’t run on Kubernetes, since Docker helps the CRI customary. A extra convincing cause for the drop in utilization is that Docker is now not new and builders and different IT employees are comfy with it. Docker itself could also be a smaller piece of the operations ecosystem, and it might have plateaued, but it surely’s nonetheless very a lot there.

Content material about Kubernetes was the third most generally seen on this group, and utilization grew 4.4% yr over yr. That comparatively sluggish development might imply that Kubernetes is near a plateau. We more and more see complaints that Kubernetes is overly complicated, and we anticipate that, eventually, somebody will construct a container orchestration platform that’s easier, or that builders will transfer towards “managed” options the place a 3rd social gathering (most likely a cloud supplier) manages Kubernetes for them. One essential a part of the Kubernetes ecosystem, the service mesh, is declining; content material about service mesh confirmed a 28% decline, whereas content material about Istio (the service mesh implementation most carefully tied to Kubernetes) declined 42%. Once more, service meshes (and particularly Istio) are broadly decried as too complicated. It’s indicative (and maybe alarming) that IT departments are resorting to “roll your personal” for a posh piece of infrastructure that manages communications between providers and microservices (together with providers for safety). Alternate options are rising. HashiCorp’s Consul and the open supply Linkerd venture are promising service meshes. UC Berkeley’s RISELab, which developed each Ray and Spark, lately introduced SkyPilot, a software with objectives just like Kubernetes however that’s specialised for information. Regardless of the end result, we don’t consider that Kubernetes is the final phrase in container orchestration.

12 months-over-year development for infrastructure and operations subjects

If there’s any software that defines “infrastructure as code,” it’s Terraform, which noticed 74% year-over-year development. Terraform’s objectives are comparatively easy: You write a easy description of the infrastructure you need and the way you need that infrastructure configured. Terraform gathers the sources and configures them for you. Terraform can be utilized with the entire main cloud suppliers, along with personal clouds (through OpenStack), and it’s confirmed to be a necessary software for organizations which are migrating to the cloud.

We took a separate have a look at the “steady” methodologies (also called CI/CD): steady integration, steady supply, and steady deployment. General, this group confirmed an 18% year-over-year improve in models seen. This development comes largely from an enormous (40%) improve in using content material about steady supply. Steady integration confirmed a 22% decline, whereas steady deployment had a 7.1% improve.

What does this inform us? The time period steady integration was first utilized by Grady Booch in 1991 and popularized by the Excessive Programming motion within the late Nineties. It refers back to the apply of merging code adjustments right into a single repository often, testing at every iteration to make sure that the venture is at all times in a coherent state. Steady integration is tightly coupled to steady supply; you nearly at all times see CI/CD collectively. Steady supply is a apply that was developed on the second-generation net firms, together with Flickr, Fb, and Amazon, which radically modified IT apply by staging software program updates for deployment a number of occasions each day. With steady supply, deployment pipelines are absolutely automated, requiring solely a ultimate approval to place a launch into manufacturing. Steady deployment is the latest (and smallest) of the three, emphasizing utterly automated deployment to manufacturing: updates go instantly from the developer into manufacturing, with none intervention. These methodologies are carefully tied to one another. CI/CD/CD as a complete (and sure, no person ever makes use of CD twice) is up 18% for the yr. That’s a major acquire, and despite the fact that these subjects have been round for some time, it’s proof that development continues to be attainable.

12 months-over-year development for steady methodologies

IT and operations certifications

The main IT certification is clearly CompTIA, which confirmed a 41% year-over-year improve. The CompTIA household (Community+, A+, Linux+, and Safety+) dominates the certification market. (The CompTIA Community+ confirmed a really slight decline (0.32%), which might be simply random fluctuation.) The Linux+ certification skilled great year-over-year development (47%). That development is straightforward to know. Linux has lengthy been the dominant server working system. Within the cloud, Linux situations are way more broadly used than the alternate options, although Home windows is obtainable on Azure (after all) together with macOS. Up to now few years, Linux’s market penetration has gone even deeper. We’ve already seen the position that containers are taking part in, and containers nearly at all times run Linux as their working system. In 1995, Linux might need been a unusual selection for individuals dedicated to free and open supply software program. In 2023, Linux is obligatory for anybody in IT or software program improvement. It’s onerous to think about getting a job or advancing in a profession with out demonstrating competence.

12 months-over-year development for IT certifications

It’s shocking to see the Cisco Licensed Community Affiliate (CCNA) certification drop 18% and the Cisco Licensed Community Skilled (CCNP) certification drop 12%, because the Cisco certifications have been among the many most significant and prestigious in IT for a few years. (The Cisco Licensed Web Professional (CCIE) certification, whereas comparatively small in comparison with the others, did present 70% development.) There are a number of causes for this shift. First, as firms transfer workloads to the cloud or to colocation suppliers, sustaining a fleet of routers and switches turns into much less essential. Community certifications are much less worthwhile than they was once. However why then the rise in CCIE? Whereas CCNA is an entry-level certification and CCNP is center tier, CCIE is Cisco’s top-tier certification. The examination may be very detailed and rigorous and consists of hands-on work with community {hardware}. Therefore the comparatively small quantity of people that try it and research for it. Nevertheless, at the same time as firms offload a lot of their day-to-day community administration to the cloud, they nonetheless want individuals who perceive networks in depth. They nonetheless need to take care of workplace networks, and with extending workplace networks to distant workers. Whereas they don’t want employees to wrangle racks of information middle routers, they do want community consultants who perceive what their cloud and colocation suppliers are doing. The necessity for community employees could be shrinking, but it surely isn’t going away. In a shrinking market, attaining the very best degree of certification can have probably the most long-term worth.


We haven’t seen any vital shifts among the many main cloud suppliers. Amazon Net Providers (AWS) nonetheless leads, adopted by Microsoft Azure, then Google Cloud. Collectively, this group represents 97% of cloud platform content material utilization. The larger story is that we noticed decreases in year-over-year utilization for all three. The decreases are small and won’t be vital: AWS is down 3.8%, Azure 7.5%, and Google Cloud 2.1%. We don’t know what’s answerable for this decline. We seemed trade by trade; some had been up, some had been down, however there have been no smoking weapons. AWS confirmed a pointy drop in computer systems and electronics (about 27%), which is a comparatively massive class, and a smaller drop in finance and banking (15%), balanced by substantial development in larger schooling (35%). There was numerous volatility amongst industries that aren’t large cloud customers—for instance, AWS was up about 250% in agriculture—however utilization amongst industries that aren’t main cloud customers isn’t excessive sufficient to account for that change. (Agriculture accounts for properly below 1% of whole AWS content material utilization.) The underside line is, as they are saying within the nightly monetary information, “Declines outnumbered beneficial properties”: 16 out of 28 enterprise classes confirmed a decline. Azure was related, with 20 industries displaying declines, though Azure noticed a slight improve for finance and banking. The identical was true for Google Cloud, although it benefited from an inflow of particular person (B2C) customers (up 9%).

Over the previous yr, there’s been some dialogue of “cloud repatriation”: bringing functions which have moved to the cloud again in-house. Price is the best motivation for repatriation; firms shifting to the cloud have usually underestimated the prices, partly as a result of they haven’t succeeded in utilizing the cloud successfully. Whereas repatriation is little doubt answerable for among the decline, it’s at most a small a part of the story. Cloud suppliers make it tough to depart, which mockingly may drive extra content material utilization as IT employees strive to determine how you can get their information again. A much bigger problem could be firms which are placing cloud plans on maintain as a result of they hear of repatriation or which are suspending massive IT initiatives as a result of they concern a recession.

Of the smaller cloud suppliers, IBM confirmed an enormous year-over-year improve (135%). Virtually the entire change got here from a major improve in consulting {and professional} providers (200% development yr over yr). Oracle confirmed a 36% lower, nearly fully as a result of a drop in content material utilization from the software program trade (down 49%). Nevertheless, the truth that Oracle is displaying up in any respect demonstrates that it’s grown considerably over the previous few years. Oracle’s high-profile deal to host all of TikTok’s information on US residents may simply solidify the corporate’s place as a major cloud supplier. (Or it may backfire if TikTok is banned.)

We didn’t embrace two smaller suppliers within the graph: Heroku (now owned by Salesforce) and Cloud Foundry (initially VMware, handed off to the corporate’s Pivotal subsidiary after which to the Cloud Foundry Basis; now, a number of suppliers run Cloud Foundry software program). Each noticed pretty sharp year-over-year declines: 10% for Heroku, 26% for Cloud Foundry. So far as models seen, Cloud Foundry is sort of on a par with IBM. However Heroku isn’t even on the charts; it seems to be a service whose time has handed. We additionally omitted Tencent and Alibaba Cloud; they’re not in our topic taxonomy, and comparatively little content material is on the market.

12 months-over-year development for cloud suppliers

Cloud certifications adopted an identical sample. AWS certifications led, adopted by Azure, adopted by Google Cloud. We noticed the identical puzzling year-over-year decline right here: 13% for AWS certification, 10% for Azure, and 6% for Google Cloud. And once more, the drop was smallest for Google Cloud.

Whereas utilization of content material about particular cloud suppliers dropped from 2021 to 2022, utilization for content material about different cloud computing subjects grew. Cloud migration, a reasonably common class for content material about constructing cloud functions, grew 45%. Cloud service fashions additionally grew 41%. These will increase might assist us to know why utilization of content material in regards to the “large three” clouds decreased. As cloud utilization strikes past early adopters and turns into mainstream, the dialog naturally focuses much less on particular person cloud suppliers and extra on high-level points. After just a few pilot initiatives and proofs of idea, studying about AWS, Azure, and Google Cloud is much less essential than planning a full-scale migration. How do you deploy to the cloud? How do you construct providers within the cloud? How do you combine functions you’ve gotten moved to the cloud with legacy functions which are staying in-house? At this level, firms know the fundamentals and need to go the remainder of the way in which.

12 months-over-year development for cloud certifications

With this in thoughts, it’s by no means shocking that our clients are very all in favour of hybrid clouds, for which content material utilization grew 28% yr over yr. Our customers notice that each firm will inevitably evolve towards a hybrid cloud. Both there’ll be a wildcat skunkworks venture on some cloud that hasn’t been “blessed” by IT, or there’ll be an acquisition of an organization that’s utilizing a distinct supplier, or they’ll have to combine with a enterprise associate utilizing a distinct supplier, or they don’t have the funds to maneuver their legacy functions and information, or… The explanations are countless, however the conclusion is similar: hybrid is inevitable, and in lots of firms it’s already the truth.

The rise in use of content material about personal clouds (37%) is a part of the identical story. Many firms have functions and information which have to stay in-house (whether or not that’s bodily on-premises or hosted at an information middle providing colocation). It nonetheless is smart for these functions to make use of APIs and deployment toolchains equal to these used within the cloud. “The cloud” isn’t the exception; it has grow to be the rule.

12 months-over-year development for cloud structure subjects

Skilled Expertise

Up to now yr, O’Reilly customers have been very all in favour of upgrading their skilled and administration expertise. Each class on this comparatively small group is up, and most of them are up considerably. Undertaking administration noticed 47% year-over-year development; skilled improvement grew 37%. Use of content material in regards to the Undertaking Administration Skilled (PMP) certification grew 36%, and curiosity in product administration grew equally (39%). Curiosity in communication expertise elevated 26% and curiosity in management grew by 28%. The 2 remaining classes that we tracked, IT administration and demanding considering, weren’t as massive and grew by considerably smaller quantities (21% and 20%, respectively).

A number of elements drive these will increase. For a very long time, software program improvement and IT operations had been seen as solo pursuits dominated by “neckbeards” and delinquent nerds, with some “rock stars” and “10x programmers” thrown in. This stereotype is unsuitable and dangerous—not simply to people however to groups and corporations. Up to now few years, we’ve heard rather a lot much less about 10x builders and extra in regards to the significance of excellent communication, management, and mentoring. Our clients have realized that the important thing to productiveness is sweet teamwork, not some legendary 10x developer. And there are definitely many workers who see positions in administration, as a “tech lead,” as a product supervisor, or as a software program architect, as the apparent subsequent step of their careers. All of those positions stress the so-called “comfortable expertise.” Lastly, speak about a recession has been on the rise for the previous yr, and we proceed to see massive layoffs from large firms. Whereas software program builders and IT operations employees are nonetheless in excessive demand, and there’s no scarcity of jobs, many are definitely making an attempt to amass new expertise to enhance their job safety or to offer themselves higher choices within the occasion that they’re laid off.

12 months-over-year development for skilled expertise subjects

Net Growth

The React and Angular frameworks proceed to dominate net improvement. The steadiness is constant to shift towards React (10% year-over-year development) and away from Angular (a 17% decline). Many frontend builders really feel that React presents higher efficiency and is extra versatile and simpler to be taught. Many new frameworks (and frameworks constructed on frameworks) are in play (Vue, Subsequent.js, Svelte, and so forth), however none are near changing into opponents. Vue confirmed a major year-over-year decline (17%), and the others didn’t make it onto the chart.

PHP continues to be a contender, after all, with nearly no change (a decline of 1%). PHP advocates declare that 80% of the online is constructed on it: Fb is constructed on PHP, as an illustration, together with thousands and thousands of WordPress websites. Nonetheless, it’s onerous to take a look at PHP and say that it’s not a legacy know-how. Ruby on Rails grew 6.6%. Content material utilization for Ruby on Rails is just like PHP, however Rails utilization has been declining for some years. Is it poised for a comeback?

Using content material about JavaScript confirmed a slight decline (4.6%), however we don’t consider that is vital. In our taxonomy, content material can solely be tagged with one matter, and all the things that covers React or Angular is implicitly about JavaScript. As well as, it’s attention-grabbing to see utilization of TypeScript growing (12%); TypeScript is a strongly typed variant of JavaScript that compiles (the suitable phrase is definitely “transpiles”) to JavaScript, and it’s proving to be a greater software for giant complicated functions.

One essential development exhibits up on the backside of the graph. WebAssembly continues to be a small matter, but it surely noticed 74% development from 2020 to 2021. And Blazor, Microsoft’s implementation of C# and .NET for WebAssembly, is up 59%. That’s a robust sign. These subjects are nonetheless small, but when they’ll keep that sort of development, they received’t be small for lengthy. WebAssembly is poised to grow to be an essential a part of net improvement.

12 months-over-year development for net improvement subjects


The heaviest utilization within the design class went to consumer expertise and associated subjects. Person expertise grew 18%, consumer analysis grew 5%, interface design grew 92%, and interplay design grew 36%. For years, we anticipated software program to be tough and uncomfortable to make use of. That’s modified. Apple made consumer interface design a precedence early within the early 2000s, forcing different firms to comply with in the event that they wished to stay aggressive. The design considering motion might now not be within the information, but it surely’s had an impact: software program groups take into consideration design from the start. Even software program builders who don’t have the phrase “design” of their job title want to consider and perceive design properly sufficient to construct respectable consumer interfaces and nice consumer experiences.

Usability, the one user-centric matter to point out a decline, was solely down 2.6%. It’s additionally price noting that use of content material about accessibility has grown 96%. Accessibility continues to be a comparatively small class, however that sort of development exhibits that accessibility is a facet of consumer expertise that may now not be ignored. (Using alt textual content for photos is just one instance: it’s grow to be frequent on Twitter and is sort of common on Mastodon.)

Data structure was down considerably (a 17% drop). Does that imply that curiosity has shifted from designing data stream to designing experiences, and is {that a} good factor?

Use of content material about digital and augmented actuality is comparatively small however grew 83%. The previous yr noticed numerous pleasure round VR, Web3, the metaverse, and associated subjects. Towards the top of the yr, that appeared to chill off. Nevertheless, an 83% improve is noteworthy. Will that proceed? It might depend upon a brand new technology of VR merchandise, each {hardware} and software program. If Apple could make VR glasses which are comfy and that folks can put on with out wanting like aliens, 83% development might sound small.

12 months-over-year development for design subjects

The Future

We began out by saying that this trade doesn’t change as a lot from yr to yr as most individuals assume. That’s true, however that doesn’t imply there’s no change. There are alerts of essential new tendencies—some utterly new, some continuations of tendencies that began years in the past. So what small adjustments are harbingers of larger adjustments within the years to return?

The Go and Rust programming languages have proven vital development each up to now yr and for the previous few years. There’s no signal that this development will cease. It’ll take just a few extra years, however earlier than lengthy they’ll be on a par with Java and Python.

It’s no shock that we noticed big beneficial properties for pure language processing and deep studying. GPT-3 and its successor ChatGPT are the present stars of the present. Whereas there’s been numerous speak about one other “AI winter,” that isn’t going to occur. The success of ChatGPT (to not point out Steady Diffusion, Midjourney, and plenty of initiatives happening at Meta and Google) will maintain winter away, a minimum of for an additional yr. What’s going to individuals construct on prime of ChatGPT and its successors? What new programming instruments will we see? How will the which means of “pc programming” change if AI assistants take over the duty of writing code? What new analysis instruments will grow to be obtainable, and can our new AI assistants persist in “making stuff up”? For a number of years now, AI has been probably the most thrilling space in software program. There’s tons to think about, tons to construct, and infinite area for innovation. So long as the AI neighborhood supplies thrilling new outcomes, nobody shall be complaining and nobody want concern the chilly.

We’ve additionally seen a powerful improve in curiosity in management, administration, communication, and different “comfortable expertise.” This curiosity isn’t new, but it surely’s definitely rising. Whether or not the present technology of programmers is getting uninterested in coding or whether or not they understand comfortable expertise as giving them higher job safety throughout a recession isn’t for us to say. It’s definitely true that higher communication expertise are an asset for any venture.

Our viewers is barely much less all in favour of content material in regards to the “large three” cloud suppliers (AWS, Azure, and Google Cloud), however they’re nonetheless tremendously all in favour of migrating to the cloud and benefiting from cloud choices. Regardless of many studies claiming that cloud adoption is sort of common (and I confess to writing a few of them), I’ve lengthy believed that we’re solely within the early levels of cloud adoption. We’re now previous the preliminary stage, throughout which an organization may declare that it was “within the cloud” on the idea of some trial initiatives. Cloud migration is severe enterprise. We anticipate to see a brand new wave of cloud adoption. Firms in that wave received’t make naive assumptions in regards to the prices of utilizing the cloud, and so they’ll have the instruments to optimize their cloud utilization. This new wave might not break till fears of a recession finish, however it’s going to come.

Whereas the top-level safety class grew 20%, we’d hoped to see extra. For a very long time, safety was an afterthought, not a precedence. That’s altering, however slowly. Nevertheless, we noticed big beneficial properties for zero belief and governance. It’s unlucky that these beneficial properties are pushed by necessity (and the information cycle), however maybe the message is getting via in any case.

What about augmented and digital actuality (AR/VR), the metaverse, and different fashionable subjects that dominated a lot of the commerce press? Curiosity in VR/AR content material grew considerably, although what meaning for 2023 is anybody’s guess. Lengthy-term, the class most likely will depend on whether or not or not anybody could make AR glasses a vogue accent that everybody must have. A much bigger query is whether or not anybody can construct a next-generation net that’s decentralized, and that fosters immediacy and collaboration with out requiring unique goggles. That’s clearly one thing that may be performed: look no additional than Figma (for collaboration), Mastodon (for decentralization), or Petals (for a cloud-less cloud).

Will these be the large tales for 2023? February is simply simply starting; we’ve got 11 months to seek out out.


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