Lately, electrocatalytic reactions involving oxygen, nitrogen, water, and carbon dioxide have been developed to substitute standard chemical processes, with the purpose of manufacturing clear vitality, fuels and chemical compounds. A deepened understanding of catalyst buildings, energetic websites and response mechanisms performs a vital function in bettering the efficiency of those reactions. To this finish, in situ/operando characterisations can be utilized to visualise the dynamic evolution of nanoscale supplies and response intermediates underneath electrolysis situations, thus enhancing our understanding of heterogeneous electrocatalytic reactions. On this evaluation, we summarise the state-of-the-art in situ characterisation methods utilized in electrocatalysis. We categorise them into three sections primarily based on totally different working rules: microscopy, spectroscopy, and different characterisation methods. The capacities and limits of the in situ characterisation methods are mentioned in every part to spotlight the present-day horizons and information additional advances within the subject, primarily aiming on the customers of those methods. Lastly, we have a look at challenges and attainable methods for additional improvement of in situ methods.

Graphical abstract: In situ characterisation for nanoscale structure–performance studies in electrocatalysis

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